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The Sahel part of Africa includes (from west to east) parts of northern Senegal , southern Mauritania , central Mali , northern Burkina Faso , the extreme south of Algeria , Niger , the extreme north of Nigeria , central Chad , central and southern Sudan , the extreme north of South Sudan , Eritrea , Cameroon , Central African Republic and extreme north of Ethiopia . 
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As the climate of Sahel was mainly dry and hot and leads to a high evaporation rate and also little rainfalls. The distribution of rainfall in the Sahel region is uneven. The rainfall in the region has been below average since 1970. The Sahel is becoming drier on the whole. The problem of drought affects most of the countries. As a result, crops and animals die. There is no vegetation to protect the soil, which is then removed by flash floods and strong wind. This leads to soil erosion. Finally the desert spreads towards the surrounding areas.